Clockwise from top left: Federalist artillerymen during the Siege of Myeongshi; A wounded People's Liberation Army soldier treated by a medic during the 1937 Southern Offensive; Mobilization of Anglian tanks in Giju; Soldiers of the United Republics Army retreating from Salhu City; People's Liberation Army soldiers setting defensive lines across the Taek River; Anglian soldiers with a PLA prisoner of war
| People's Revolutionary Front |
|Commanders and leaders|
| Yi Kwang
| Kim Tae-sung|
|Casualties and losses|
|Military deaths 398,000+
|Military deaths 651,000+|
The Troubles, was a period of conflicts fought in western Gyunghwa from 1936 to 1938. Known internationally as the Western Gyunghwan Conflict and informally as the Gyunghwan Civil War, the Troubles was a low level war between the federal government, the far-right Young Gyunghwan Party, and the communist People's Revolutionary Front. The Troubles was primarily a result of the Escaric Market Crash of 1932 and the backlash of fringe elements against crackdowns by the Yi Gwang government. Both the People's Revolutionary Front and the Young Gyunghwan party were categorized by the Yi Gwang government as a terrorist organization and the United Republics pressured against international recognition of the insurgent factions. .
The conflict effectively ended in June 14th, 1938 with the capture of RPF leader Kim Tae-sung in Chungsu after the military stormed the PRF's capital city of Hwanggi in March 9th, 1938. Martial law was put in place on the western states after the war with military governors instituting crackdowns against underground activities. It was only in 1948 when martial law was lifted from the western states. The Troubles devastated the western states of Gyunghwa, with its infrastructures in ruin and much of the recovery efforts after the war was built on the west. The civil war left Gyunghwa with a vehemently anti-communist sentiment, which influenced its foreign and domestic policies through much of the 20th century as it had supported anti-communist Anglia against the Donlanders and underwent various red scares, the effect of which are felt today.
The Market Crash of 1932
Although there are many reasons for the Troubles to occur such as loss of public support on governmental figures, regionalization leftover from the Gyunghwan Confederation, partisan divide, etc., many historians agree that the Market Crash of 1932 played a major role in the offset of the Troubles. The Market Crash of 1932 marked a period of high unemployment, poverty, and lost opportunities and personal advancements in the United Republics. Add to the relative ineffectiveness of President Choe Dong-wook and Congress in passing meaningful relief to the economy, more extremist elements begin to rise, especially in union-heavy Northwest and the rural southwest. Worker's groups coalesced around the Socialist Workers Party while populist agrarian organizations were united by the Young Gyunghwan Party, each representing a rising distaste for the establishment parties. Political rallies, strikes, and riots were commonplace and both the Socialist Worker's Party and the Young Gyunghwan party saw massive gains in local and state elections. There were talks that the two parties could each have a shot at the Presidency and gaining seats in Congress in the 1936 election.
The threatened establishment parties had attempted to form a grand coalition but talks have failed, leading to a five way presidential race between Federalist Councillor Yi Kwang of Busang, Democratic Governor Kae Chin-ho, Popular Party House Leader Chu Hyonjun, Young Gyunghwa Party Leader Mo Taekdong, and Socialist Worker's Party Leader Kim Tae-sung. Controversies of the race continued with accusation of Chu Hyonjun and Yi Kwang syphoning off votes from moderate members of the SWP and the YGP respectively, something both candidates vehemently denied and the race was considered to be a close one between the Federalists, the Democrats, and the Populares. The 1936 Presidential election was ultimately won with a victory for Yi Kwang with 44.4% of the popular vote due to a secret agreement between the Federalist Party, the Democratic Party, and the Popular Party in keeping keeping the SWP and the YGP out of government. Yi Kwang was inaugurated at August 15th, 1936 as the fifth President of the United Republics amidst protests of election rigging by Kim Tae-sung and Mo Taekdong.
The Yi Kwang Administration
President Yi Kwang, knowing the precarious situation of his administration, had sought efforts to be bipartisan on solving the various economic issues. The Yi Kwang Administration presented a first round of austerity plan to Congress with various spending cuts, raising of tariffs, establishment of social programs, and moderate tax raises on the nation's top earners. The first year of his administration oversaw a slow yet steady economic recovery. However, the initial recovery wasn't enough to calm the many strikes, demonstrations, and riots rocking the country, particularly in the Western States which were the hotbed of fringe activities. Many governors affiliated with the establishment parties called in state militias to bolster local police in calming down the situation with Congress calling in the federal military into western states to cease the political violence. This has drawn opposition from SWP and YGP Governors whom condemned the resolution as tyrannical with Congressmen from those parties making an unsuccessful attempt to repeal the resolution.